No matter what type of food you feed your dog or cat, these few specific supplements will give him important nutrients and improve his diet.
Many people, including veterinarians, believe that processed commercial pet foods have all the nutrients dogs and cats need for good health. As they begin to realize that excessive processing destroys nutrients, they may switch to better quality or fresher foods. But even when these diets contain a full complement of vitamins, minerals and other required nutrients, there’s still room for improvement. In fact, no matter what type of food you feed your companion, a few specific supplements will complement and improve his diet.
1. Omega-3 fatty acids
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play many roles in the body, but only two fatty acids are considered essential: linoleic acid (LA, an Omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, an Omega-3). All others can, at least theoretically, be produced in the body from those two precursors.
The Omega-3s that get the most buzz are eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA). Neither is considered essential, although DHA is needed during growth in puppies and kittens. But the only meat that contains any EPA/DHA (and even then, perhaps not enough) is 100% grass-fed meat. All other meat is feedlot finished or grain-raised, and therefore contains virtually zero EPA/DHA.
The vast majority of plant-based oils are in the form of Omega-6 fatty acids, which are typically over-supplied in our animals’ diets. Flaxseeds and a few other seeds and nuts do contain Omega-3 in the form of ALA, which has beneficial effects of its own, particularly on skin and coat health. However, even though ALA is technically a precursor of EPA and DHA, dogs and especially cats have extremely limited capacity for converting it (no more than 1% to 2% for EPA and virtually 0% for DHA after weaning). Only marine-sourced oils (fish oil, cod liver oil, krill oil, greenlipped mussel oil, and some algae oils) contain the pre-formed EPA and DHA that our carnivorous companions can absorb and utilize. Dogs and cats must receive EPA and DHA directly.
1. EPA is important for cell membrane fluidity, circulation, skin health and immune system function. It has powerful anti-inflammatory effects, is helpful for many infl ammatory and degenerative conditions, and is specifically beneficial for chronic kidney disease, arthritis, feline asthma, dermatitis and cancer.
2. DHA is the most abundant fat in the brain, and the main component of myelin. It is crucial for nervous and visual system development. Research suggests that DHA deficiency may play a role in anxiety, hyperactivity and aggression; supplementation may be helpful in these cases.
Keys to selecting a good Omega-3 product
3. Look for products made from wild (not farm-raised) fish that are harvested sustainably, or from clean, cultivated mussels or algae.
4. Cod liver oil should be free of added vitamins A and D, which can reach toxic levels in small animals.
5. Products should be independently tested for freshness.
6. They should be free of toxins such as mercury, PCBs and dioxin, which are widespread in the world’s oceans.
2. Digestive enzymes
Digestive enzymes break down foods so they can be absorbed and utilized by the body. When food is not properly broken down, larger particles can enter the bloodstream and set off an immune response that may lead to inflammation, allergies, and other chronic health problems. Digestive enzymes also improve digestion, reduce gas, help regulate weight, and in the case of proteolytic enzymes, decrease inflammation throughout the body.
Normally, the pancreas supplies these needed digestive enzymes, although production slows as animals get older. Raw foods contain many enzymes, including an array of digestive enzymes within cellular lysosomes.
Cooking denatures enzymes. Supplementing digestive enzymes is especially important for animals eating processed commercial pet food (in addition to any enzymes listed on the label). Geriatric animals may also benefit, even if they’re on a raw food diet. Digestive enzymes may also be useful in the treatment of parasites such as giardia, and may prevent the pancreatic hypertrophy that can result from eating a processed diet.
Keys to selecting a good digestive enzyme product
• Look for one from a plant or fungal source, in order for it to work in the widest range of pH and temperature.
• It should contain, at least: protease, amylase, lipase and cellulase.
Probiotics include beneficial bacteria such as L. acidophilus and certain Bifidobacteria, Enterococcus and Streptococcus species. Probiotics help keep normal gut bacteria balanced and healthy.
The intestinal microbiota is an essential part of overall health. Constant back-and-forth interaction occurs between the gut bacteria and brain through neural, endocrine, immune and humoral links. A balanced gut ecology has implications for not only physical but also emotional and mental health. It prevents pathogenic bacteria from gaining a foothold; produces B vitamins, vitamin K, and short-chain fatty acids; and supports normal immune system function.
Supplemental probiotics have benefits for allergies, including atopy and food allergies. They are also helpful for animals with any type of digestive problem, including vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, IBD, colitis, and even hairballs.
Probiotics are also essential for animals who are, or have been, taking antibiotics (including natural antimicrobial therapies such as herbs, medicinal mushrooms, colloidal silver, etc.). Continue probiotic supplementation for at least two weeks after treatment.
Keys to selecting a good probiotic product
• Look for a supplement containing at least Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria.
• There should be a label guarantee of live microorganisms.
• The product should be of sufficient potency (at least 100 million per dose).
• Many products combine digestive enzymes with probiotics, and these can be a good, cost-effective choice, especially for fussy animals who are difficult to supplement.
The function of antioxidants is to scavenge and neutralize oxygen free radicals. Cells make controlled quantities of free radicals as weapons against viruses, fungi, bacteria and abnormal cells. However, excess unbalanced free radicals create oxidative stress, which can damage normal cells and create chronic inflammation. Processed pet foods are typically high in pro-inflammatory Omega-6 fatty acids, so supplementing with antioxidants is very important.
Free radical damage is at the root of virtually all degenerative and inflammatory diseases, as well as many we don’t necessarily think of as involving inflammation, such as diabetes, cancer, hypothyroidism, heart disease, and cognitive dysfunction. By reducing oxidative stress, antioxidants likely have value in disease prevention as well as treatment. However, the mechanisms are complex, and robust scientific proof is still lacking. Nevertheless, antioxidants can universally be considered helpful for most inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases.
Keys to selecting a good antioxidant product
• It should contain multiple antioxidants, such as vitamin E, carotenoids (e.g. beta carotene and lycopene) and flavonoids (like vitamin C and quercetin).
• Look for a natural or whole food-derived product, rather than one that’s chemically synthesized. Natural products are typically found in l-form as opposed to d- or dl-form; for example, d-alpha tocopheral is a synthetic product.
• Plant and fungal sources may be more bioactive.
• For cats, avoid products containing alpha lipoic acid, due to toxicity concerns.
Incorporating these four supplement categories into your dog or cat’s diet regime, regardless of what food he’s eating, will help ensure optimal overall health.[adning id=”36048″]
Jean Hofve, DVM, earned her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine at Colorado State University. In addition to conventional veterinary training, she studied veterinary homeopathy, homotoxicology, Reiki, and other holistic modalities. She has researched pet food and feline nutrition for nearly two decades, and is an expert on holistic pet health and the commercial pet food industry. She is an official advisor to AAFCO, the organization that sets pet food rules and standards in the U.S. and Canada. Dr. Hofve co-authored the book Holistic Cat Care.